In Europe, it is debated whether economic development will draw on the ability of places to adapt and react to internal and external shocks using local resources; this ability alludes to the application of the concept of resilience, or the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize itself, to social systems. According to Holling, resilience is not only the capacity to absorb shocks and maintain functions, but it also includes a second aspect concerning the capacity for renewal, reorganization and development, to be taken into consideration for redesigning a sustainable future.
A new path for success and the creation of future economic opportunities encompasses promoting creativity and innovation by sustaining talent and excellent ideas to make Europe an attractive place for the best researchers in the world. Whereas human capital is undoubtedly acknowledged as a key strategic resource, artistic heritage is also an important asset to consider, especially if it is economically enhanced through the application of science and technology. Therefore, material and immaterial heritage becomes a catalyst for innovation and development, offering a competitive advantage in terms of both resources endowment and competencies. The fact that this type of heritage is also widespread regarding clusters, districts, cultural and creative industries makes it all the more important.